## Multiplication 1

MATERIAL:

PURPOSE:

To understand the concept of multiplication as equal addition
To learn the vocabulary: multiplication, multiplicand, multiplier, and product
(Note:  Because multiplication is the addition of equal quantities, it may be introduced at any time after children have learned addition.  Since these problems do not include exchanging, the product of any heirarchy must not be greater than 9, and the largest product possible is 9999.)

AGE:

5 years onwards

EXERCISE:

A group exercise for a few children.  The material is arranged as for addition.  One child is responsible for the golden beads material.  One child is in charge of the large number cards.  One child oversees the small number cards.

The teacher thinks of a problem, e.g. 2322 x 3.  The teacher makes 2322, three times in small number cards and puts them on each of three trays.  She gives a tray to each of three children.  She asks the children to read the number on their tray in turn.  When they have done so, she stresses the fact that they each have the same numeral.  "You each have the same numeral.  You each have 2322.  Will you all go to the bank and collect that amount in golden beads."

The children collect 2322 each and come back to the teacher.

The teacher takes each tray in turn.  She takes the quantities off each tray, saying, "You have brought 2322."  She arranges the quantities on the mat one below the other, and takes the small number cards and places them under each other at the top of the mat.  The teacher says, indicating the golden beads, "We have 2322 three times."

We will add them together and see how much we have altogether.  She adds the hierarchies.  She asks a child to count the result beginning with the units.  After each hierarchy has been counted, the corresponding amount in large number cards is placed beside it.

The teacher superimposes the number cards and places them under the small ones at the top of the table.  She recaps, "We had 2322 three times.  We added them together and got 6966."  Other problems can be worked in this way.

(Note: In multiplication small equal quantities are added together to make a larger quantity.  Small number cards are used for the quantities and large number cards for the product to help give this impression.)