## Exercise 1

MATERIAL:

• 45 ten bars
• A green felt table mat

PURPOSE:

To teach the names of the numerals 10 to 90 in association with the quantities

AGE:

4 years and older

EXERCISE:

The three period lesson is used.  The teacher takes six ten bars to the child's table.  She sits beside him and places the tens to one side.

Period 1

The teacher puts a bar in front of the child.  The child will tell her that it is "10."

The teacher puts the ten to one side and puts two tens in front of the child.  He will tell her that it is "two 10's."  The teacher says, "Yes, two 10's.  We call two 10's, twenty."  She repeats the name several times.

She then puts the twenty to one side and puts three tens in front of the child.  He will tell her it is "three 10's."  She will agree and tell him that three tens are called thirty.  She repeats the word several times.

Period 2

The teacher puts the three groups in front of the child and asks him to show her any she asks for.  "Can you show me thirty?  Point to twenty.  Which one is ten?  If I mix them up will you still know them?"  She does so and again asks the child to show her the various quantities.

Period 3

The teacher has the groups on one side. She places one quantity at a time in front of the child and asks him to name it for her.  At the end of the lesson, the teacher arranges the quantities in sequence in a column and names them with the child, "Ten, twenty, thirty."

New quantities are added in sequence and the names are taught on subsequent days, as the child is ready for them.  The child takes the material out and practices by arranging the quantities in a column from 10 to 90 and naming them for himself.

Note:  The ten bars are always arranged side by side to form rectangles:

10 = 1 x 10

20 = 2 x 10

30 = 3 x 10

This is not explained to the child but he  or she retains a visual impression of the geometry of the number.